A Pipe Organ SoundFont

Stop List - Version 1.4 (July 4, 2000)

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Compared to some famous pipe organs, the JEUX soundfont is only mildly extravagant. How many ranks of reeds en chamade can you find on this organ case in the cathedral of Granada, Spain? (The stop list I saw gives 7 ranks each on the left and right halves of the Organo Grande, plus an additional 1/2 rank on the Cadireta. However, the stop list puts most of these ranks at 4' pitch, while other documentation suggests some should have been at 2' or even 1' pitch. As far as I know, this instrument has not been playable for a very long time, and there are no recordings.)

The table below gives the patch number, description, and technical information for the 180 melodic presets included in the JEUX SoundFont. The main group of 128 stops, the first of the two banks in the soundfont, are organized as if on a large organ with 5 manuals and a significant pedal department. Of course, the stops can be used in MIDI realizations in any way that seems expedient, but they may make better musical sense when this disposition is respected. On the other hand, the requirements of, say, Spanish organ music of the Baroque era are very different from French or German music of the same period. It may be necessary to make a mental rearrangement of the logical "manuals" to arrive at a workable scheme for realizing the music of different composers and periods. The French Romantic organ, in particular, was arranged very differently from its predecessors.

The second bank, which might be termed "JEUX Romantiques", has an additional 75 stops, most of them designed for the French Romantic repertoire, but also including some interesting items for early music, such as the higher ranks characteristic of early Italian organs, and stops for an English Baroque chamber organ. When the JEUX soundfont is loaded as recommended into bank 42 of the sound card, the additional stops will end up in bank 43. In the table below, the stops of the second bank are described at the bottom. It has been a great temptation to identify this as the "left bank".

The stops in the first bank provide the standard registrations that are needed for pre-revolutionary French organ music. In addition, there is a full complement of flutes, reeds, mutations, and effects that should allow reasonably faithful realizations of baroque organ music from other national styles. Historical niceties aside, however, the point of this collection is entertainment!

Why a French stop list? The sound of the French classical organ was a challenge for me. For my perspective on this subject, click here.

A list of the changes in the latest version of JEUX is available, click here.

For further reading and listening, I highly recommend the following links:

Grand Orgue

Number Description
000 Montre 8'
001 Prestant 4'
002 Doublette 2'
003 Montre+Prestant 8'+4'
004 Montre+Prestant+Doublette 8'+4'+2'
005 Principals (g.o.) 8'+2'+1'
006 Montre+Doublette 8'+2'
007 Principals (g.o.) 16'+8'
008 Principals (g.o.) 16'+4'
009 Principals (g.o.) 16'+2'
010 Montre+Flute 8'+4'
011 Nazard 2 2/3'
012 Tierce 1 3/5'
013 Larigot 1 1/3'
014 Neuvième 8/9'
015 Bourdon 16'
016 Spitzflöte 8'
017 Holzflöte 4'
018 Open Flute 4'
019 Gamba1 8'
020 Gamba+Flute 8'+4'
021 Gamba+Viola 8'+4'
022 Gamba+Prestant 8'+4'
023 Gamba+Doublette 8'+2'
024 Viola+Principals (g.o.)2 4'+8'+2'
025 Trompette 8'
026 Trompette+Prestant+Doublette 8'+4'+2'
027 Sesquialtera II
028 Terzian II
029 Septade III
030 Nonade IV
031 Nazard III
032 Septième VI
033 Fourniture III
034 Cymbale III
035 Mixture VI
036 Principal Chorus 16'+8'+4'+2'
037 String Chorus
038 Fond d'Orgue
039 Pienino
040 Ripieno I (g.o.)
041 Ripieno II (g.o.)
042 Plein Jeu (g.o.)
043 Grand Jeu
044 Tutti (g.o.)


Number Description
045 Principal (pos.)3 8'
046 Principal (pos.) 4'
047 Principals (pos.) 8'+4'
048 Principals (pos.) 8'+4'+1'
049 Principals (pos.) 8'+2'
050 Principals (pos.) 16'+4'
051 Gedackt 8'
052 Gemshorn 8'
053 Rohrflöte 8'
054 Rohrflöte 4'
055 Gemshorn 4'
056 Blockflöte 4'
057 Sifflöte 1'
058 Gedackt 8'+4'
059 Gemshorns+Mixture III 8'+4'
060 Flauti 8'+2'+1'
061 Gedackt+Larigot 8'+1 1/3'
062 Gedackt+Mixture VI 8'
063 Flauti 4'+2'
064 Salicionale 8'
065 Quintadena 8'
066 Viola4 4'
067 Salicionale+Gamba 8'+8'
068 Salicionale+Gedackt 8'+8'
069 Quintadena+Viola 8'+4'
070 Viola+Principals (pos.)5 4'+16'+4'
071 Krummhorn6 8'
072 Cromorne7 8'
073 Cornemuse 8'
074 Cor Anglais8 8'
075 Schalmei9 8'
076 Orlos10 8'
077 Regal 8'
078 Clairon 4'
079 Clarines11 8'+4'
080 Cromorne+Viola 8'+4'
081 Jeu de Cromorne IV12 8'
082 Krommhorn+Larigot 8'+1 1/3'
083 Nazardos VIII13
084 Jeu de Tierce V14 8'
085 Jeux Doux15
086 Jeu des Flutes
087 Ripieno I (pos.)
088 Ripieno II (pos.)
089 Plein Jeu (pos.)
090 Petit Jeu (pos.)
091 Jeu des Anches
092 Swell Chorus
093 Flute Celeste 8'
094 Viola Celeste 4'
095 Piffaro16 8'
096 Vox Humana 8'
097 Voix Humaine IV17 8'


Number Description
098 Grand Cornet V
099 Trompeta de Batalla18 8'


Number Description
100 Gros Cromorne19 8'
101 Basse de Trompette20 16'
102 Bombarde 16'


Number Description
103 Gobletflöte21 2'
104 Gobletflöte 4'+2'
105 Echo Trompette 4'
106 Goblet Nazard III 4'
107 Echo Cornet V 8'
108 Echo Flutes
109 Echo Chorus


Number Description
110 Principal (ped.) 16'
111 Sousbasse 16'
112 Principals (ped.) 16'+8'
113 Principals (ped.) 16'+4'
114 Resultant22 32'
115 Posaune 16'
116 Fagotto23 8'
117 Posaune+Prestant 16'+4'
118 Posaune Pedal III 16'
119 Quintade III (ped.) 16'
120 Ripieno I (ped.)
121 Ripieno II (ped.)
122 Tutti (ped.)


Number Description
123 Great Bells
124 Carillon
125 Petit Carillon
126 Zimbelstern24
127 Nachtigal25

Additions: JEUX Romantiques

Stops of the second bank

Number Description
000 Viola 8'
001 Carnival Gedeckt 8'
002 Carnival Trumpet 8'
003 Viola Celeste 8'
004 Terzizimbel
005 Flûte Harmonique 8'
006 Bourdon + Principal (ped.) 16'+8'
007 Romantic Chorus I (g.o.)
008 Romantic Chorus I (pos.)
009 Romantic Chorus II (récit)
010 Principals (pos.) 16'+8'+4'
011 Principal Chorus (pos.) 16'+8'+4'+2'
012 Decimanona 1 1/3'
013 Vigesimaseconda 1'
014 Vigesimasesta 2/3'
015 Vigesimanona 1/2'
016 Romantic Chorus II (g.o.)
017 Romantic Chorus II (pos.)
018 Romantic Chorus I (récit)
019 Quint 2 2/3'
020 Mixture III
021 Fonds (g.o.) 8'
022 Fonds (g.o.) 8'+4'
023 Fonds (g.o.) 16'+8'
024 Fonds (g.o.) 16'+8'+4'
025 Fonds (g.o.) "lite" 16'+8'+4'
026 Fonds (pos.) 8'
027 Fonds (pos.) 8'+4'
028 Fonds 16'+8'
029 Fonds 16'+8'+4'
030 Fonds (récit) 8'
031 Fonds (récit) 8'+4'
032 Fonds (soft, pos.) 8'
033 Fonds (soft, pos.) 8'+4'
034 Fonds (soft, pos.) 16'+8'
035 Fonds (soft, pos.) 16'+8'+4'
036 Reeds (g.o.) 8'
037 Reeds (g.o.) 8'+4'
038 Reeds (g.o.) 16'+8'
039 Reeds (g.o.) 16'+8'+4'
040 Reeds (pos.) 8'
041 Reeds (pos.) 8'+4'
042 Reeds (récit) 8'
043 Reeds (récit) 8'+4'
044 Musette Reeds 8'
045 Fonds de Gros Tierce V
046 Fonds (ped.) 16'+8'+4'
047 Reeds (ped.) 16'+8'+4'
048 Pedal Reeds + Bombarde 16'+8'+4'
049 Quart de Nazard 2'
050 Beckerath Tutti
051 Divine Trumpet 8'
052 Trompette en Chamade 8'
053 Hautbois 8'
054 Trompette du Récit Romantique 8'
055 /Voix Céleste 8'
056 Voix Humaine sans Tremblant 8'
057 Pedal Reeds 16'+8'
058 Contra-Posaune 32'
059 17th Century English Chorus
060 Bourdon 32'
061 Stopped Diapason 16'
062 Open Diapason 16'
063 Diapasons 8'
064 Diapasons 8'+4'
065 Diapasons 8'+4'+2'
066 Choir Chorus
067 Mild "English" Chorus
068 Ripieno III (g.o., "mean and lean")
069 Plein Jeu VI (Neo-Baroque)
070 Cymbale IV (Neo-Baroque)
071 Twinkly Flute Mixture
072 Suaviola 8'
073 Quintadena 4'
074 Corinthian Flute 8'
075 Glockenspiel 8'


1The Gamba is based on muted cello samples from the SHARC Timbre Database, with additional modifications. Visit the SHARC website at explore the fascinating collection of data and sound samples for almost all the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra.

2The Principals in this combination are those used on the Grand Orgue, of relatively normal scale.

3The Principals on the Positif are derived from samples of the modern concert flute. As a result, they provide an interesting contrast with the Principals of the Grand Orgue. The sound is equivalent to a flue pipe of relatively narrow scale, voiced close to overblowing, thus producing a sound that is richer and somewhat dense. Where possible, this difference in scale has been exploited in the construction of the stops assigned to the Positif in the JEUX SoundFont.

4The Viola is based on samples from the SHARC database, though considerably modified. See Note 1, above.

5The Principals in this combination are those on the Positif, of relatively narrow scale.

6The Krummhorn rank is based on recordings of actual instruments, and has the strong raspy sound characteristic of the Renaissance instrument.

7The Cromorne rank, distinct from the Krummhorn rank, is a standard modern reed stop, with a much smoother quality than the samples used for the Krummhorn.

8The Cor Anglais is based on samples from the SHARC database, producing very interesting results when used as a solo stop. See Note 1, above.

9The Schalmei might better be termed Hautbois, as it is based on a particularly mellow Oboe note from the SHARC database, somewhat modified. It is intended mainly as a treble solo. We could go so far as to consider this rank as a divided "Basson-Hautbois" (found in many historic French organs), even though the same sample is used through the entire range. The perceived timbre difference is strictly an aural artefact, albeit a very useful one. See Note 1, above.

10The Orlos is a kind of Regal sometimes found on Spanish organs. The sample used here seems a good approximation. This stop was introduced in JEUX version 1.1, and replaces the Dulcian of the original release, which was based on a muted trumpet sample. In fact, the sounds are similar in terms of overtone structure, but the new stop should be far more useful.

11The Clarines (plural of Clarin, Spanish name for the higher, brighter trumpet stops) are included in the JEUX SoundFont to simplify registration of Spanish organ music. The combination used here is equivalent to Trompette 8 + Clairon 4.

12The Jeu de Cromorne IV provides a realization of a fairly typical usage from the late 17th Century: Cromorne 8', Bourdon 8', Prestant 4', and Nazard 2 2/3'. As the Cromorne is here assigned to the Positif, the Prestant uses the logical narrow-scaled pipes of that manual, as described in Note 4, above.

13Spanish organs frequently provide two flue choruses, one of normal scale (Lleno is one name for this), and one of wider scale, the Nazardos. The realization used here adds 16', 2', 1 1/3', 1', and 2/3' ranks to the standard Nazard III recipe. While I know of no organ with so many ranks of Nazardos, the sound seems useful and appropriate.

14The Jeu de Tierce V is a realization of a typical recipe for use in pieces labeled "Tierce en Taille" etc. The registration differs from the standard Cornet 5 in that the 4' and 2' ranks are principals instead of flutes (in this case, using the narrow-scale ranks assigned to the Positif, see Note 5, above). The Jeu de Tierce and Cornet had many uses, with or without tremulant, in "Dialogues", fugues, etc. Where the Jeu de Tierce does not seem strong enough, the Sesquialtera II or Larigot may be added.

15The Jeux Doux here includes 16', 8', and 4' bourdons, a combination that seems to balance fairly well in most situations where "jeux doux" would be specified in an original registration. Typically, this would be against a strong solo registration on the Grand Orgue or Récit, such as Grand Cornet, Jeu de Tierce, Dessus de Trompette, Basse de Trompette,etc. Other possibilities for "jeux doux" include Gedackt 8' + 4', Gedackt 8' + Prestant 4', etc., dictated by the (presumed) good taste and discretion of the performer.

16The Piffaro is the Italian equivalent of the Flute Celeste, using pipes of principal scale. Some trickery is involved in this implementation. The real pipes for Piffaro sometimes had a double mouth, one a little lower than the other,producing the characteristic slow heterodyne beats from a single rank.

17The Voix Humaine IV is a realization of a fairly typical French recipe from the late 17th Century, seemingly intended to soften the effect of the Vox Humana rank (a regal), while at the same time increasing its volume. The recipe used here adds Gedackt 8' + 4' and Nazard 2 2/3', with a mild tremulant. Similar combinations are called for in a few German registrations that have survived.

18The Trompetta de Batalla is derived from a tuba sample. It seems a reasonable substitute for the stop found on Spanish organs.

19The Gros Cromorne 8' is based on an "enhanced" sample from actual bass krummhorns. A more typical classic French registration would have used something like our Jeu de Cromorne, though there is precedent for Cromorne ranks of exceptional power in France.

20The Basse de Trompette 16' is based on a sample from a French organ. However, most classic French organs probably did not have a Trompette of this scale. Instead, the pieces labeled "Basse de Trompette" could employ a registration such as Trompette 8' + Bourdon 8' + Prestant 4' to achieve the required gravity, if the Trompette alone was too weak. Suitably toned down, the Basse de Trompette 16' sample also powers the Posaune 16' in the JEUX SoundFont.

21The "Gobletflöte" is a fanciful rank assigned to the Echo manual, derived from the sound produced by a large wine glass I found in my kitchen. I suppose the traditional warning should be repeated here, part of the lore of the Glass Harmonica, as I heard it from Bruno Hoffmann. The vibrations of the glass, transmitted through the wet fingertips, are supposed to travel up the nerves of the arm to the spinal chord and thence to the performer's brain, where they will inevitably cause madness after a long time. I do not know if Bruno ever suffered from this effect, but he certainly enjoyed recounting this story to his audiences. The Gobletflöte rank produces a very ethereal sound.

22The Resultant 32' depends on the phenomenon of the "difference tone". It is composed of bourdons at 16' and 10 2/3', capable of giving the effect of a registration of 32' + 16' + 10 2/3'. Much depends on the speaker system,and the effect is rather subtle.

23The Fagotto is based on bassoon and contra-bassoon samples from the SHARC database.

24The Zimbelstern stop is implemented so that the effect of starting and stopping the rotation of the "star" can be heard. It uses 7 tuned bells, and is transposable to all keys. The MIDI notes 60-71 generate the effect of the Zimbelstern starting up and continuing for as long as the note lasts. If the note is followed by the corresponding MIDI note one octave lower (i.e., MIDI notes 48-59), the Zimbelstern will be heard to slow down and come to a stop.

25The Nachtigal stop is found all over Europe, though there is not a lot of information on how it was used. The JEUX SoundFont features two actual male Nightingales singing from opposite sides of the virtual organ case. Our Nightingales can sing in any key, but their natural range is somewhere around Middle C, MIDI note 60. By playing much lower notes, MIDI note 48 or lower, one may begin to appreciate the complexity of their song! The song continues in stereo for as long as the MIDI note lasts. When the note is released, the song fades gradually away. The effect seems particularly à propos in certain passages of the Handel organ concertos.

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